Closeup abundance soil for agriculture or planting peach.

Closeup abundance soil for agriculture or planting peach.

Routine soil testing is the foundation of any successful soil fertility program.

Without knowing the nutrient levels and soil pH in your crop fields, it is impossible to manage nutrients and lime applications for peak crop production and the most profitable economics.

Soil testing is the only way to know how much of each nutrient is needed and where.

Extension soil fertility specialist Charlie White explains that trying to manage soil fertility without soil testing is like trying to drive with your eyes closed.

There are several reasons why fall is a preferred time for soil testing.

With the crop harvested, you can walk or drive a buggy easily through the field.

The soil has usually moistened up a bit from the summer, so it’s easier to get a soil probe in and out of the ground.

And you will receive the results from the soil testing with enough time to make a game plan for lime, fertilizer and manure applications for the coming year.

If you end up needing lime, winter can be a good time to spread lime on frozen ground to avoid soil compaction and allow enough time for the lime to react and raise soil pH before the next year’s crops.

You’ll only be able to know if lime is needed, and how much, if you have a soil test taken in the fall.

If you need phosphorus and potassium, you can calculate how much you’ll need for your different fields and place an order with your fertilizer dealer and figure out an application strategy well in advance of the next crop year.

If you are importing manure onto the farm, results of soil testing can help you determine which fields will benefit the most from the nutrients contained in the manure, and may help you strategically locate manure stacking areas for the most efficient spreading on the fields that will be receiving the manure.

Penn State Extension has several resources to help you through the process of soil sampling if this is unfamiliar to you.

The Penn State Agricultural Analytical Services Lab website for soil fertility testing ( has links to sampling instructions and submission forms.

There is also a video at that explains the basics of soil sampling.

Many people are accustomed to purchasing “prepaid” soil testing kits from county Extension offices.

These kits have a special sample bag with a sticker on it indicating the analysis cost has been paid already.

Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, however, county Extension offices are not open to sell the prepaid kits.

Don’t worry, it’s perfectly acceptable to submit your soil sample to the lab in a regular zipper bag with a check for the analysis costs. You still need to fill out and include a sample submission form for all your samples, available at the link above.

Soil tests are usually good for making fertilizer recommendations for the following three years of the rotation.

When you factor in the acreage that the soil test represents and the frequency of testing once every three years, the costs of soil sampling only amount to a dollar or two per acre per year, even including the labor of obtaining the soil sample.

Given that the cost of fertilizer and lime inputs each year can easily run up to and over $100 per acre, the cost of soil testing is negligible relative to the value derived from it in being able to make informed and economical decisions about nutrient applications.

Leon Ressler is a Penn State Extension educator based in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.

Leon Ressler is a Penn State Extension educator based in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.


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